Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is a Chinese bilingual/CLIL program?

A: A Chinese bilingual/CLIL program is an educational approach that integrates the teaching of both Chinese language skills and content knowledge from various subject areas. Research suggests that such programs have multiple benefits for students. For example, a study by Wang and Zhang (2019) found that students in a Chinese bilingual program demonstrated higher levels of Chinese language proficiency and academic achievement compared to their peers in traditional language programs.


Q: What are the benefits of a Chinese bilingual/CLIL program for students?

A: Research has shown several benefits of Chinese bilingual/CLIL programs. A meta-analysis conducted by Pérez-Cañado (2018) indicated that students in CLIL programs outperformed those in non-CLIL programs in terms of both language skills and content knowledge. Furthermore, a study by Cenoz and Gorter (2015) found that students in bilingual programs developed better cognitive skills, such as critical thinking and problem-solving abilities, compared to students in monolingual programs.


Q: How can teachers effectively integrate language and content in a Chinese bilingual/CLIL program?

A: Effective integration of language and content involves careful planning and instructional strategies. Research suggests that pre-teaching key vocabulary and concepts, providing language support during content instruction, and using visual aids and graphic organisers can enhance students' language acquisition while learning the content (Marsh, 2017). Additionally, cooperative learning activities and the incorporation of authentic materials can promote language use and meaningful learning (Breeze, 2018).


Effective integration of language and content in a Chinese bilingual/CLIL program requires careful planning and instructional strategies. Research suggests several approaches that teachers can utilise:

  1. Pre-teaching key vocabulary and language structures: Prior to introducing new content, teachers can pre-teach key vocabulary and language structures in Chinese. This helps students build a foundation of language knowledge necessary for understanding and engaging with the content. For example, before a science lesson on the solar system, teachers can teach relevant Chinese vocabulary such as "太阳" (tàiyáng) for the sun and "行星" (xíngxÄ«ng) for planets.
  2. Language support during content instruction: Teachers can provide language support during content instruction to help students comprehend and express their understanding in Chinese. This can include providing sentence frames or language scaffolds to support oral or written responses. For instance, during a social studies lesson on government structures, teachers can provide sentence frames like "在中国,国家的最高领导人是______" (In China, the highest leader of the country is ______) to assist students in expressing their knowledge in Chinese.
  3. Use of visual aids and graphic organisers: Visual aids and graphic organisers can assist students in making connections between language and content. Teachers can use diagrams, charts, or graphic organisers to represent concepts visually, helping students understand and express ideas in Chinese. For instance, when teaching a maths lesson on fractions, teachers can use a visual fraction bar to illustrate the concept and encourage students to use Chinese to describe different parts of the fraction.
  4. Cooperative learning activities: Cooperative learning activities promote language use and meaningful learning. Teachers can structure group activities where students work together to discuss and solve problems related to the content using Chinese. For example, in a literature lesson, students can engage in literature circles where they read Chinese texts together and discuss the themes, characters, and plots in Chinese.
  5. Authentic materials and real-world connections: Incorporating authentic materials, such as Chinese books, newspapers, or multimedia resources, enhances language acquisition and content understanding. Teachers can use real-world examples, videos, or texts in Chinese that relate to the content being taught. For instance, when teaching a geography lesson on famous landmarks, teachers can show videos or pictures of landmarks in China and engage students in discussions or presentations in Chinese about their significance.
  6. Integration of language skills: Teachers should integrate the four language skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing—across content instruction. For example, during a science experiment, teachers can provide instructions in Chinese, ask students to discuss their observations in Chinese, read related texts in Chinese, and have students write a scientific report in Chinese.

By implementing these strategies, teachers can effectively integrate language and content, supporting students' language development while deepening their understanding of the subject matter. It is important for teachers to provide a balanced focus on language and content, ensuring that both aspects are addressed in their lesson planning and instructional practices.


Remember, these strategies can be adapted and modified based on the specific content areas, student proficiency levels, and curriculum requirements of the Chinese bilingual/CLIL program.


Q: What challenges may arise when implementing a Chinese bilingual/CLIL program?

A: Implementing a Chinese bilingual/CLIL program can present various challenges. It is important for teachers to be aware of these challenges and to have strategies in place to address them. Here are some common challenges and possible solutions:

  1. Finding appropriate resources: One challenge is finding resources that align with both language and content objectives. Teachers may struggle to locate materials that integrate the two effectively. To overcome this challenge, teachers can adapt existing materials or create their own resources. For example, they can modify textbooks or online resources by adding Chinese language elements or creating supplementary materials that bridge the language and content aspects. 
  2. Ensuring teacher proficiency: Teachers may face challenges in maintaining proficiency in both Chinese language and the subject area being taught. Ongoing professional development is crucial to address this. Teachers can attend workshops or courses specifically focused on improving their language proficiency and content knowledge. They can also engage in language immersion programs or seek mentorship from experienced bilingual educators. Collaborating with colleagues who have expertise in specific content areas can also be beneficial. 
  3. Time management: Balancing language instruction and content instruction within limited time can be challenging. To address this, teachers can carefully plan and structure lessons to ensure both language and content objectives are covered. They can use strategies like block scheduling, where longer periods of time are dedicated to integrate language and content instruction. Teachers can also prioritise essential language skills and focus on high-impact language functions relevant to the content being taught.
  4. Assessment considerations: Assessing students' progress in both language and content can be complex. Teachers should design assessments that align with the objectives of the bilingual/CLIL program. They can use a variety of assessment methods such as performance tasks, project-based assessments, and regular formative assessments. For example, during a history lesson, students can be assessed through a project where they research and present a historical event or figure in Chinese, demonstrating their language proficiency and understanding of the content.
  5. Parent and community support: Engaging parents and the wider community in a Chinese bilingual/CLIL program can be a challenge. It is important to communicate the goals and benefits of the program to parents. Teachers can organise information sessions or parent workshops to explain the program's objectives and provide strategies for supporting language development at home. They can also involve parents in cultural events or activities related to the program, fostering a sense of community and encouraging active participation.
  6. Collaborative planning and support: Collaboration among teachers within the Chinese bilingual/CLIL program is vital for sharing expertise and best practices. Regular collaborative planning sessions can be scheduled to develop lesson plans, share resources, and discuss effective instructional strategies. Additionally, creating professional learning communities or networks can provide ongoing support and a platform for sharing experiences and challenges with other teachers in similar programs.

Q: How can parents be engaged and involved in a Chinese bilingual/CLIL program?

A: Engaging parents in a Chinese bilingual/CLIL program can strengthen the home-school connection and support students' learning. Research by Leung, Hau, and Lee (2018) suggests organising parent information sessions to explain the program's goals and benefits. Regular updates on students' progress, providing resources and strategies for parents to support language development at home, and encouraging parental involvement in cultural events and activities related to the program have been found to enhance parental engagement (Liu, 2019).

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